عنوان مقاله [English]
نویسندگان [English]چکیده [English]
Background and objective: smuggling is a sinister phenomenon that brings an irreversible damage and effects in various economic, social, security, and other dimensions into the community. That is why it is particularly important to have a careful study on the extent and the effective causes of the constituents of this phenomenon. This study has addressed the factors affecting smuggling in Kurdistan province.
Method: in terms of its objective this study is of an applied research type and in terms of its nature and methodology it is of descriptive-survey research type. The statistical population of the study includes 80 expert individuals of organizations in charge of smuggling (customs, police, suspended state agencies, the Department of Directive Possession property, industries and mines organization, commercial organization) and 50 smugglers who had the police record of smuggling. The data collection was conducted by the two researcher-made questionnaires (α : .75 for the experts’ questionnaire, α : .71 for the smugglers’ questionnaire). The data were analyzed by SPSS software. For testing the hypotheses the Mean Comparison test and t-test were employed.
Findings and results: the results showed that both groups of experts and smugglers believe that the high rate of unemployment, low income and poor of the region are among the essential factors of increasing smuggling in terms of the contextual part. In the structural part, getting high custom tariffs and interests on the imported goods, which lead to the dramatic differences in the prices of imported goods from the official ports and smuggled goods, were recognized as the most important factor. In terms of the individual factors, lack of motivations among the employees and officials of counter-smuggling that is partly due to their low wages and the workplace relations are the main factors.